INS Arihant (Sanskrit: अरिहंत) (S-73) is the lead ship of India's Arihant class of nuclear-powered submarines. The 5,000–6,000 tonne vessel was built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project at the Ship Building Centre in Visakhapatnam.
The Arjun MKII variant is to be followed by the Futuristic Main Battle Tank (FMBT), the development work of which has been started in 2010. The Indian Army plans to induct the FMBT from 2020 onwards. The FMBT will be a lighter tank of 50 tons.
During the late 1980s, the Indians expressed interest in purchasing (and possibly manufacturing under license), an East German-designed AK chambered for the 5.56x45mm cartridge. The deal ultimately fell through.
The INSAS system was originally planned to have three component weapons: a standard rifle, a carbine, and a squad automatic rifle (LMG), all chambered for 5.56x45mm NATO ammunition. In 1997 the rifle and LMG were ready for mass production, and in 1998 the first Indian army units were observed armed with INSAS rifles for the Republic Day Parade. The mass introduction of the INSAS rifle was initially delayed by the lack of domestically made 5.56 mm ammunition; India accordingly bought significant stocks from the Israeli company, IMI. At least 300,000 INSAS rifles are in service with the Indian army; some of these have seen action in Indo-Pakistani conflicts.
INS Vikramaditya (Sanskrit: विक्रमादित्य, Vikramāditya, "Brave as the Sun") is the new name for the former Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov, which has been procured by India, and is estimated to enter service in the Indian Navy after 2012.
The Vikramaditya is a modified Kiev class aircraft carrier built in 1978-1982 at Black Sea Shipyard, Mykolaiv, Ukraine. The ship is presently being extensively refitted at the Sevmash shipyard in Severodvinsk, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It is projected to replace India's only currently serving aircraft carrier, INS Viraat.
India possesses nuclear weapons and maintains short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles, nuclear-capable aircraft, surface ships, and submarines under development as possible delivery systems and platforms. Although it lacks an operational ballistic missile submarine, India has ambitions of possessing a nuclear triad in the near future when INS Arihant the lead ship of India's Arihant class of nuclear-powered submarines formally joins the Indian Navy in 2012 after undergoing extensive sea-trials. Though India has not made any official statements about the size of its nuclear arsenal, recent estimates suggest that India has between 80 and 100 nuclear weapons, consistent with earlier estimates that it had produced enough weapons-grade plutonium for up to 75-110 nuclear weapons. Production of weapons-grade plutonium is believed to be taking place at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, which is home to the CIRUS reactor, acquired from Canada and shut down in 2010, to the indigenous Dhruva reactor, and to a plutonium separation facility.
India is not a signatory to the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which India argues entrenches the status quo of the existing nuclear weapons states whilst preventing general nuclear disarmament. India tested a nuclear device in 1974 (code-named "Smiling Buddha"), which it called a "peaceful nuclear explosion." The test used plutonium produced in the Canadian-supplied CIRUS reactor, and raised concerns that nuclear technology supplied for peaceful purposes could be diverted to weapons purposes. This also stimulated the early work of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.India performed further nuclear tests in 1998 (code-named "Operation Shakti").
India has signed and ratified both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention.
- Partition of India 1947
- Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
- Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
- Sino-Indian War 1962
- Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
- Bangladesh Liberation War
- Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
- Siachen conflict 1984
- Kargil War 1999